Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Loss of Innocence in the Puritan Society

In the Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne hones in on the contrast between good versus bad and the loss of innocence that defies that line. Hester Prynne is a symbol of shame and sin to the puritan society, however she once was an innocent and honorable woman. On page 76, Hawthorne repeats the phrase â€Å"At her, child of honorable parents†¦ At her, mother of a babe†¦ At her. † This repetition emphasizes the way Hester was once viewed as a symbol of purity and honor in the puritan community.Hawthorne also uses phrases like â€Å"Child of honorable parents†, â€Å"mother of a babe† and â€Å"had once been innocent† to contrast Hester’s sin with the innocence that she once had. This is also an example of pathos because the author is reaching out to the reader and making a point of the difference between Hester as a symbol of innocence and purity, and Hester as a symbol of shame and mistake. These phrases create a fine line between what is good and what is bad in the puritan community.Hawthorn later uses phrases like â€Å"heap of shame†, â€Å"misery†, â€Å"frailty†, â€Å"sinful passion†, â€Å"doom† and â€Å"alien† to make an example of Hester and emphasize her terrible actions. The diction in these phrases expresses the negative outlook toward Hester in society. She made a bad decision that haunts her and causes society to view her loss of innocence as a symbol of sin and dishonesty, to a point where they alienate her from the community. Hawthorne also uses the phrase â€Å"It may seem marvelous†¦ It may seem marvelous†¦ It may seem marvelous,† over and over again.This repetition also draws a contrast between the things that haunt Hester in her community and her desire to remain where she lives rather than pack up and move away. The author is saying that with all of the hatred and shame that haunts Hester in Boston, it is marvelous that she chooses to st ay rather than flee. Something about her sin and guilt there makes her want to stay instead of running from it. This shows the moral strength and integrity in Hester as a character. Although she made a terrible decision and has lost the innocence that she once had, there is no clearly defined line in her character between good and bad.Sometimes good people make bad decisions. In this case, Hester is such a strong willed character that she chose an individual freedom over the conformity in the puritan era when she committed her crime. In conclusion, Hawthorne makes an example of Hester Prynne in the puritan era to show the conformity and honor that society lived by. When Hester committed that sin, she became a symbol of shame and loss of innocence to the puritan community. Through the use of repetition, pathos, and diction, Hawthorne discusses the line between good versus bad in the puritan era and how loss of innocence effects that balance.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Night †Devotion to God Essay

Under certain circumstances, one’s perspective towards their faith in God may change, which is demonstrated in the memoir Night. Wiesel’s initial devotion to God and his faith undergoes a radical transformation in the face of his horrendous experiences, resulting in apparently soils and cynical atheism, but his faith survives to some degree in spite of overwhelming odds, and in subsequent years move have revived enough to motivate this memoir. At the age of twelve, Wiesel began to question God and analyze the cabbala with his fellow friend Moche, and together there faith became stronger than before. Then, under circumstances, Moche was sent away, and returned as a different man. The motif of his eyes demonstrated his loss in the faith of God. He cried to the people to believe that the horrific experiences he said was true, but no one could pull themselves together to believe. Moche’s faith was gone, and that only made Wiesel’s faith stronger. Wiesel’s devotion never disappeared as he stated, â€Å"I continued to devote myself to my studies. By day, Talmud, at night, the cabbala† (18). Yet, his faith began to take a turn when the Germans took over the life of the Jews. He described his experiences as hell, describing that god was trying to say that hell wasn’t any worse than the experiences they were going through. Wiesel kept thinking of god, thanking him for every joyful moment that he came across. Wiesel’s faith became then weakened when he came across a rabbi. â€Å"Here came the Rabbi, his back bent, his face shaved, his pack on his back. His mere presence among the deportees added added a touch of unreality to the scene† (26), Wiesel faith weakened because seeing this rabbi left him in shock, making it so surreal. After the rabbi experience, Wiesel’s faith went downhill from there. When the night came along no one prayed, out of fear of the next day. Wiesel came across horrific experiences, making him question god. He saw babies and humans being burned, for no apparent reason. Angered, Wiesel came to a solution by stating â€Å"Why should i bless His name? † (42). At times, Wiesel’s faith was totally gone because he was angered towards how people were treated, and why God didn’t do anything about it. Wiesel’s relationship with God remained as he believed that God was out there, just hidden saying â€Å"I did not deny God’s existence, but I doubted His absolute justice. † (53). Then time passes and Wiesel’s relationship with God is then questioned when he is influenced by the people around him. One day he came across three victims being killed, and listening to to people saying â€Å"Where is He? † (72). Wiesel was also influenced by Akiba Drummer, as the motif in his eyes showed that he lost total faith in God. Wiesel no longer blessed God because he realized that there was no point of blessing God when he allowed so many horrid things to happen. Wiesel also stopped praying, since he had no time to do so. All this resulted to an extent of Wiesel being spiritually dead. Wiesel lost total faith and spirit in God, because of the horrid experiences he went through, which changed his perspective on certain things. After the concentration camp, Wiesel’s spirit and faith revive. Looking back at his experiences, as he writes his memoir, he realizes how harsh he was to God. Wiesel acted bitter towards God, as he lost faith, not because he chose to, it was because of the circumstances he was under. Wiesel’s faith and spirit was probably gained as he slowly began to realize that God had nothing to do with the repulsive experiences he went through. The reason he lost faith in God was because he needed someone to blame, someone to take his anger out to, and that was probably understood a while after he was rescued. Overall, Wiesel’s perspective towards faith in God changes, which is demonstrated in the memoir Night. To conclude, Wiesel’s initial devotion to God and his faith undergoes a radical transformation in the face of his horrendous experiences, resulting in apparently soils and cynical atheism, but his faith survives to some degree in spite of overwhelming odds, and in subsequent years move have revived enough to motivate this memoir. In certain situations, one’s relationship with God can take a change, for the better or worse.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Should juveniles punished or try as adults Research Paper

Should juveniles punished or try as adults - Research Paper Example The reasoning behind this is actually quite simple. The full grown adults believe that although a child / teenager is involved in a very adult crime, such as murder, he does not truly grasp the meaning and reality of his actions. One mistake during his childhood should not condemn him to a life of hard core punishment. Although such argument tend to hold water among child psyche experts, parents, and some sympathetic courts, the reality of the situation is that the child committed a major crime. A crime that could land an adult in prison for a very long time. Nobody can ever be sure that a child did the crime â€Å"with little understanding of his actions†. If a juvenile committed the offense, he definitely has at least a basic understanding of what the outcome of his actions might be. Therefore, he should not be sheltered from the results of his actions. Rather, he must be made to face up to the resulting consequences of his actions. That is the only way to truly rehabilitate a juvenile delinquent and make sure that he does not grow up to become a social problem. A social problem who as an adult, poses a grave threat to our children, our livelihood, and our very lives. People like former Gov. Jeb Bush believe that â€Å""There should be some sensitivity that a 14-year-old is not a little adult." (Reaves, 2011). His comment is based on the understanding that a fourteen year old does not have the mental capacity to formulate a murder scenario, get his hands on a lethal weapon such as a gun, and use it against someone whom he feels did him wrong. That might have been true during the time of the youth of the governor. However, the increasingly violent movies shown on television, cable TV, and the internet has removed that cloak of innocence in a child. These days, a child of 14 has the full understanding and ability to kill anybody as evidenced by cases like 14 year old Nathan Brazil who was found guilty of second degree murder after killing his teacher in 2011. (Reaves, 2011) Experts who study the human brain say that it was wrong for those Brazil to have been tried as an adult. Their argument being based on their research studies indicating that â€Å"...the brain's prefrontal lobe, which some scientists speculate plays a crucial role in inhibiting inappropriate behavior, may not reach full development until age 20. â€Å" (Reaves, 2011) If we are to believe the experts about how long it takes for the human brain to actually develop, then we would all still be juvenile delinquents at the age of 20, not held responsible for being drunk drivers, doing drugs, or bullying other kids because â€Å"Hey, I'm just a kid. I know nothing!†. I sincerely doubt that most parents and others who are involved in the life of the delinquent would truly buy such a pathetic explanation or excuse in relation to the actions of a juvenile delinquent. By saying that a child does not have the mental capacity to understand his course of actions, we are giving this soon to be adult an easy out. Failing to take into consideration that these children are exposed to violence every single day of their lives. (Schwartz, 2010) Be it in the media, the movies, or even at school, these children see increasingly disturbing amounts of violence and, because of the way that adult news programs report the events, give them some sort of understanding as to what happened and why. Indeed, they may not have the same capacity as an adult to plan the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

How did music influence dictator and their politics Essay

How did music influence dictator and their politics - Essay Example The interesting thing about all the three is that they all hated jazz music. Jazz, being based on improvisation, was for them a synonym of freedom, which is not what was needed for an authoritarian regime. As a result, all the three dictators prohibited jazz and other western music in their countries. The favorite composers of Hitler were Ludwig van Beethoven, Richard Wagner, and Anton Bruckner. Their powerful, heroic, and especially marshal pieces were inspiring the dictator and, finally, he promoted the three composers as examples of great artists of the Nazi Germany. As a result, it came out that Hitler was supporting the German musical tradition, but suppressed creativity – everything was to be close to the set standards. Situation in the Soviet Union was quite similar. However, the emphasis of Stalin was not on classical music, but on ‘soviet’ music instead. Composers and song writers were to write only ‘politically correct’ compositions that supported the ideology of the USSR. Most of those willing to create freely did not survive the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Persuasive Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Persuasive - Research Paper Example This initiation process that aims at propagating the achievement of the set goals describes motivation (Nelson & Quick, 2013). There exist various ways in which employees could be motivated, including fair compensation, provision of conducive working environment and use of rewards and incentives. Taking the context of a convenience store where I work as cashier together with other three, I earn a monthly salary that equals that of the other cashiers despite always serving the highest number of customers monthly. In as much as we appreciate the effort that our supervisor has put forth in taking care of our welfare including provision of medical insurance and free lunch on working days, I feel that more needs to be done to optimally motivate us to serve customers faster, especially during peak times, so as to avoid longer queues which discourage customers. Appreciating the argument by Nelson and Quick (2013) that motivation would take place through a combination of approaches in any gi ven context, it would thus be important for our supervisor to adopt additional strategies in order to make us more motivated to work faster. In this case, I propose the inclusion of rewards to top performers, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually depending on the availability of resources. Danish and Usman (2010) acknowledge rewarding employee performance as a significant stimulus in sustaining high performance. The law of effects indicates that people would tend to repeat actions that cause them to attain positive rewards. As a cashiers therefore, if the supervisor rewards my all-time high transactions, I would be motivated to maintain the high performance. This has been referred to as a complement or an external reward. However, this would call for effective appraisal of employees’ performance so as to ensure accurate evaluation of performance. This argument has not only attracted research studies but has also caused scholars to come up with theories that could explain it. In deed, Victor H. Vroom attributed this phenomenon to the expectancy theory which postulates that people would desire outcomes of performance and behavior that could be considered as rewards of behavior (Nelson & Quick, 2013). This implies that with employees being aware that their effort would be rewarded by performance and further rewards, they would put greater effort which increases productivity. Of all the motivation approaches, the study of the Pakistani context by Danish and Usman (2010) indicates that rewards have been the most preferred by employees as opposed to other approaches like operating procedures, recognition and the work. As such, it means that this would be the most effective motivation strategy for our cashiers. Similar observation has been made by Brooks (2012) who acknowledges rewards as the most preferred and thus effective strategy to motivation of employees. The reason for its preference would be the value that employees attach on such rewards which would all ow for pursuance. Successful global organizations respect this postulate and as such have adopted reward plans that match their organizational needs (Nelson & Quick, 2013). The limitation of the supervisor adopting this employee motivation strategy in the convenience store, just like in any other organization would be the argument that rewards would increase the organizational expenses. Acquisition

Friday, July 26, 2019

Economic Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Economic Analysis - Research Paper Example of iPad in India, among the various variant of countertrade the company may need to employ the switch trading which refers to the practice where one company sells its products to another company on the condition that it buys other products from another country (Levy, 2009). This is favorable as the Apple Company could hire an iphone application developer from Indian i.e. hire iPad App developer Company. India investment on research and development grew from 0.8% GNP in 2007 to 0.96 in 2010. This has had an impact on the overall improvement in the research sector. The ipad may need to employ buyback which comes about when a company builds a plant in a different country or offers other services like training and provides equipments to that other country and agrees to take a portion of the plant’s yield as a partial payment for the contract (Kelly, 1988). Since independence, India has relied on foreign aid to finance some of its economic developments though it has been trying to be as self reliant as possible. Going back to history, the World Bank in 1958 organized the Aid-to-India syndicate which comprised of the World Bank and thirteen other countries i.e. Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, France, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and United States, Belgium, Britain and Denmark (Phull, 2007). Conjointly, the European nations have contributed a significant amount of aid to India. In the late 1950’s and 1960’s India received aids from the United States which accounted for 8 percent of all financial aids to India (Phull, 2007). India has a large population size, and the labor force comprises of two extremes from a large number of illiterate workers to a sizeable number of literate workers with professionalism in science, engineering and capable of working anywhere (Mazumda, 2008). Over the last two decades, the number of people in labor force grew by approximately 50 percent, and the unemployment rate has reduced from 8.3 percent to 6 percent from 1983

Strategic Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Strategic Management - Assignment Example Few major markets where it operates are the US, the UK, Australia, Asia, Europe and New Guinea. Recently, the company added more than 36 additional channels in Europe, Latin America and Asia. Consequently, the profit was also recorded to be on rise continuously. Notably, in Italy they have gained popularity by the introduction of ‘Sky Italia’. ‘Sky Italia’ offers digital video recorder, which allows customer to store their favourite movies and television programmes in HD quality. For this reason people are ready to pay for ‘Sky Italia’ (News Corporation, 2009). Broadcasting Business of TNC News Corporation’s television business mainly includes ‘My Network TV’, FOX Entertainment and 27 TV stations. Their revenue comes mainly from advertisements of different sponsors of TV shows. Their main competitors are other TV stations and Cable Programme Networks, which compete for various TV shows, revenues from advertising and that of a udiences. Around 15 percent to 18 percent of News Corporation’s total revenue comes from their television business. In the year 2009, their income from television business exceeded 4.6 billion Dollars. There was a decrease by 21% from the revenue generated in the fiscal year 2008 which amounted 1205 million Dollars. One of the reasons for this decline can be stated as the selling of few television stations in the year 2008. The revenues from advertisement also decreased because of weak market conditions (News Corporation, 2009). In the year 2010 News Corporation’s operating income saw an increase by 37% in comparison to 2009. It was recorded at $2.3 billion. All of their significant networks showed notable growth. Their revenues also increased by 8 percent in the year 2010. The revenue in 2010 was $32.8 billion Dollars and the net income was recorded at $2.5 billion Dollars (News Corporation, 2010). The Satellite Broadcasting Television section of News Corporation cons ists of ‘Sky Italia’. It provides television and broadband services via satellite directly to home. The audio & video quality, interactive programming and better service quality are the major factors of gaining a larger market share in the respective segment. Around 11 percent to 12 percent of the company’s revenue comes from this segment. For instance, in the year 2009 the revenues of ‘Sky Italia’ had increased by 11 million USD. Their number of subscribers also increased to 4.8 million in 2009 compared to 4.4 million in 2008. Consequently, their main competitors are the companies which provide high quality graphics and sound, good entertainment, various broadband internets and DTT (Direct to Home) services to the targeted market (News Corporation, 2009). Question 1 Generic Strategy of News Corporation The News Corporation has employed various generic strategies that were introduced by Michael Porter. Michael Porter had proposed three strategies in order to increase competitive advantage of a company. These are ‘cost leadership’, ‘differentiation’ and ‘market segmentation’. Considering the current strategies implied in the organisation, i.e. the News Corporation, it can be observed that the company has followed the differentiation and the segmentation strategies according to the Porter’s Generic Model. As stated by Porter, differentiation strategy is highly advantageous in a broad

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Entering the conversation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Entering the conversation - Essay Example In the event of such occurrences, human beings have been urged to accommodate the feelings and opinions of other parties involved in the dialogue (14). The author gives a detailed example of the notions a lot of people have on vegetarianism. Most people are of the opinion that vegetarianism is a lifestyle while others hold the opinion the lifestyle is dreadful (15). All in all, the author analyses both sides of the concept so as to include the opposing ideas and the ones for the lifestyle. Essentially, this is to mean that all propositions and opinions of all persons are important and must be considered in entirety. Anything is expected in the course of any form of conversation (14). The author of Reading Strategies indicates that an all-inclusive reading involves various steps. The first must be inclusive of making a preview of the entire text. Through a brief preview, the reader is able to have a quick glimpse of the ideas portrayed by the author (353). The reader must then analyse the thoughts of the author from one’s point of view. This entails the perception one holds regarding the text, either repugnance or acceptance to the author’s ideas. Afterwards, the reader must annotate the key points brought forward by the author in the text, a process that which is only successful whilst weighing the author’s viewpoints in mind. Doubting and validating the author’s views scrutinizes the reliability of the work (358). A good example is Lessig’s work where the author takes the reader through the process of analysis of a piece. On another point of view, the author argues that summarizing the main points in the course of reading helps to confirm that all sections have been analyzed properly (360). At times the author uses some patterns whilst compiling their work, which may help readers have a summary of the text (361). The readers must also use color to highlight main points in the text. All

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

D14 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

D14 - Assignment Example I expect most students to fail due to the constant hangovers. Yes it actually does. I did not consider that participating in the college drinking games during the campus and fraternity house parties actually causes alcohol addiction or that alcohol poisoning is what happens when there is excessive drinking to a level of even passing out. No it should not be stopped. Based on the increasing risky behavior that teenagers and even students engage in when they are drunk such as risky sexual behaviors or even the alcohol poisoning that has claimed the lives of many young people, it should be continued. The masking would still leave the feeling of gratification and eliminate the despair most students feel while at the same ensuring that people remain sober enough to make conscious decisions. No it will not make any difference. Most people who turn to alcohol even have no idea about what brand they are taking and especially in clubs and hence will not even care about the number of calories. Only those obsessed with weight will care and the number is negligible. What role do you think government should play in the advertising of alcohol (on television, to younger viewers, etc.)? Did watching the movie (in the list of items to do), relevant even though it was from 2006, have any real impact? The advertisements about alcohol should be pushed to late night from 11am when most of the teenagers and young people are already asleep. The movie put it in black and white about the real deal with binge drinking to especially female college students and the situation calls for dire change. Labeling will not make any significant changes in controlling or reducing the binge drinking in young college women or even older women for that matter. Many drink in order to forget some of their life’s misery and hence no labels would change that (Centre for Science in the Public Interest, 2008). Drinks such as four

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Server Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Server - Essay Example The computer network should also be secured from damages that may result from physical factors and dangers caused by computer virus. Thus, network security is extremely essential in any company; the chief information officer should be aware of how to ensure network security. There are several ways in which unauthorized users can gain access to the peer-to-peer networks in a company. First, they can access the peer networks by using any of the networked computers to type a unique username as well as password. This can be prevented by making sure that the networked computers cannot be accessed physically. To achieve this, the BIOS security should be enabled; this makes sure that the user sets an access name and password for the computers (Maiwald, 2003). Maiwald (2003) asserts that hackers and other unauthorized users can gain access to a company’s sever-based network by using the name and password of another person. In such a case, passwords should be changed on a regular basis, and they should not also be written down. This way, it will be extremely difficult for unauthorized users to access the company’s network. Data encryption can also be used to ensure that the network is secure and not accessible to unauthorized persons. Data should be encrypted before sending it onto the network. This way, the data will become unreadable even by a person who may attempt to tap the cable and read the data when it passes over the network. Upon arrival at the proper computer, the code designed to decipher encrypted data divides it into bits. The code then translates the bits into information that can be understood (Gollmann, 2011). According to Brown (2000), the network infrastructure of a company should also be protected from computer viruses which may infect the operating systems and files. Viruses can be transmitted through direct cable connection, floppy disks or CDs. Other means in which viruses can be transmitted include electronic ways such as through

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Federal Government and Laissez-Faire Essay Example for Free

The Federal Government and Laissez-Faire Essay The period of American history from 1865 to 1900 consisted of much controversy concerning economic control. Individual enterprises fought diligently to dominate economic affairs but the government was obligated to intervene when unjust activity was apparent. It was unanimously believed, among businessmen, that the government should have very little say in economic issues, the basis for Laissez-Faire. This policy invited the rights of the public consumer to be violated. As a result of the unjust treatment by the enterprises, it was necessary for the government to step in. The Interstate Commerce Act was enacted to limit the freedom and wrongful capital gain of railways to benefit the people. The Senate passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, heavily influenced by the monopolies, to prevent trade restrictions. Freedom and independence are extremely valuable aspects in any setting but can only remain if utilized responsibly. The successful individual enterprises were determined to maintain the Laissez-Faire policy. In Document A, Amasa Walker is quoted saying, Economically, it will ever remain true, that the government is best which governs least. When the government is too involved in the economy, a great many regulations are set and the corporations become less prosperous because their effective methods are limited. A New York City merchant, Daniel Knowlton, (Document B) has a supporting opinion pertaining to the proper functions of the government. He believes the government is in place to maintain domestic tranquility, defend the people from invasion, and protect them when traveling. Every merchant and big business owner alike new theyd benefit under the Laissez-Faire policy. The Interstate Commerce Act was a major intervening action taken by the Federal government in 1887. The act prevented discrimination and promoted reasonable and just fees. The success of the railroad has been attained at the most unwarranted discriminations and its effect has been to build up the strong at the expense of the weak. as stated in Document J. This method of success had come to cease because the rich were becoming richer and the poor, poorer. Document L depicts the beneficial aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act, The act to regulate commerce was not passed to injure any interests, but to conserve and protect bringing about great and salutary  measures of improvement. The act has operated directly to increase railway earnings despite initial appearance. The Sherman Antitrust Act was the proceeding measure taken by the Feds. The Senate, being dominated by monopolists as shown in Document M, was forced to pass the act. Actions in Senate were taken in the interest of monopolies instead of the people. This is a Senate of the monopolists by the monopolists, for the monopolists. The act declared all contracts restricting trade to be illegal. This was of importance to the monopolies because trade restrictions would harm them greatly. Contemporary corporations were required to be versatile in the expanding American economy. Individual enterprises fought diligently to dominate economic affairs but the government was obligated to intervene when unjust activity was apparent. The Laissez-Faire attitude was quite popular during this time. However, problems arose when it was in affect. The government instituted the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act to maintain a more balanced economy and make life easier for the poor. The Federal government only intervened in the economy when it was necessary to do so.

Legislative Requirements Essay Example for Free

Legislative Requirements Essay The purpose of this assignment is to identify the key aspects of current legislative requirements and codes of practice for teaching within the animal care sector. As a teacher within the establishment, it is my responsibility to ensure that none of my students are disadvantaged, by taking into account the Equal opportunity legislation, formally known as the Equality Act 2010, which came into force on the 6th October. It states that â€Å"no one is to be discriminated against irrespective of age, ethnic origin, gender, race, nationality, disability or domestic circumstances† the Equality act also replaces the Disability discrimination act. It would be my responsibility as a teacher, to ensure that any resources such as handouts and other learning material are free from bias (Wilson 2008 Pg 21 chap 1). Being in part, a vocational course, the health and safety at work act 1974 would be a key legislative requirement, as an educator I would be expected to demonstrate a model of best practice for my students to look up to and follow, subsequently, The management of Health and safety at work regulations 1999 would also be another piece of legislation which would be particulary relevant Furthermore, as an educator by law I have a duty of care towards my students, the legislation states that as teachers if you are proven negligent, you may have to compensate the injured party, not only does this apply to individuals but the organisation as well, I would have to ensure that whilst providing learners the opportunity to experiment and develop independence, it would have to be achieved in a safe working environment. Reporting of injuries diseases and dangerous occurrences 1995 is also relevant, being an educator in a potentially hazardous environment, more commonly known as RIDDOR, and states that certain incidents are reportable by law, they must be reported to the health and safety executive and the local authority, An example of this being if hospital treatment is needed to be administered to a student following an activity, the educational establishment should have clear guidelines on how to report incidents. There are numerous legislative requirements which as an educator I would have to adhere to. Wilson (2008) states that whilst some of these aspects need only awareness of context, many of them will impact on your first teaching experience, therefore require a detailed knowledge.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Philosophy of Love and Sex

Philosophy of Love and Sex Philosophy of Love and Sex This paper is concerned with discussing the concept of human sexuality as it pertains to polyamory. In their article Polyamory-what it is and what it isn’t, authors McCullough and Hall discuss the liberating experience that comes with the lifestyle of polyamory as well as dispelling negative uninformed conclusions that are not a definition of polyamory. The article examines the inept description of the negative stereotype of the practice and makes a compelling argument of the practice promoting acceptance rather than rejection. McCullough and Hall’s review on polyamory sheds light sheds light on the discourse and practice of polymory as loving more than one person within the realms of integrity and honesty. It is the notion of having multiple committed relationships with more than one person at a time with consent to knowledge with all the parties involved. Presently, other relationship alternatives i.e. polyamory are slowly gaining a modicum of acceptance because of bl anket assumptions that have diminished the sanctity of monogamous unions. Despite this apparent crisis within our society, most people desire monogamy and choose to be monogamous for the purpose of deepening of bonding into a lifelong commitment. The longer you maintain and grow with an individual in a committed relationship, the longer and stronger the bond. The notion of how natural, innate and viable polyamory is assumed to be, is debatable. Furthermore, the exponentially complex structure of a polyamorous union makes for a much more complicated relationship than monogamy. In relation to other forms of relationships, monogamy is currently the only acceptable, valid and highly recognized structure of human sexual relationships. Most people’s beliefs are a hodgepodge of various philosophies and practices that they found to have worked for them. In this paper, I argue against polyamorous relationships as a rationalized model of human sexuality that adds a dimension of complex ity to the dynamics of a relationship. The authors in their article present an argument for polyamory being a celebration of the human nature to want to enjoy intimacy through physical and emotional bonding without restriction in the unnatural social system of confining oneself to a relationship with just one partner. Polyamorous relationships are thought to be natural and are supposedly found throughout the universe. However, natural does not necessarily translate to better or superior. Polyamory is an individual’s expression of the preference to not stay monogamous, rather than a natural instinct. Generalizations perpetuated about monogamy as being unnatural and against our human nature are imprecise. Rising above nature is not synonymous with shaming personal preference. Imposed personal preferences in favour of polyamory being more inclined with our human nature has deemed monogamy unnatural and insurmountable, when the choice to practice either or is really a matter of preference. Furthermore, the authors asse rt that the western stereotype of monogamy symbolizes confinement, which is against our human nature. The authors challenge monogamy and demonstrate that this constructed image of the West serves to restrict and confine individuals into a relationship that is not necessarily the most ideal, given evidence such as high divorce rates. The evidence given by the authors to support polyamory emphasize the nature of this practice that is not only found in humans, but in 95% of other species as well. However, animals do not possess a conscience like human beings do. Their motive for being polyamorous is an instinct necessary for bonding and survival. Despite how natural to humanity polyamory might seem, it is a lifestyle prone to problematic complications. It is my contention that when love is divided and scattered even with the best of intentions, there is bound to be a cost and a loss. As far as the human race goes, most individuals have the preference of being the sole crowning jewel in their partner’s eyes, the being the only focus of their lover’s attention. Completely free and unbridled love can be dangerous, indecent and even irresponsible. We cannot allow ourselves to love frivolously, in any way that feels good, without any thought to the consequences that may be dismal. A relationship is much more fulfilling when you find one person whom you can give your full being and attention to. The true test of commitment is when you choose to dedicate your attention to one person in multiple ways, instead of availing yourself to multiple people. The human race is not wired to be naturally secure. We possess traits that make us egotistically insecure. To a certain extent, we are a species that exhibit a degree of possessiveness and jealousy. We are not wired to consent to sharing especially when it pertains to the object of our affection. By virtue of these traits, it is not in our nature to be polyamorous. When examining the level at which one can be open in a relationship in polyamory, we need to truthfully expound on the level at which an individual can be realistically be an open book to their partners specifically pertaining to sexual intimacy. Intimacy is a powerful thing when shared between two individuals and can create feelings of jealousy and insecurity when shared with more than two. Perhaps the notion of no jealousy in polyamorous relationship is a forcefully learned comportment under the guise of being secure and tolerant. Trust and completely open lines of communication may be compromised in this union, resulting in competitiveness and difficulty in communication, for fear of hurting your partners with absolute honesty. It may lead to internal conflict of how much honesty can be handled versus sparing your partners’ feelings. According to the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, â€Å"there are many strains that accompany the keeping of so large and important a s ecret. There is the fear of being discovered and shunned by people who might disapprove. There is the stress that comes along with the lack of recognition of one’s partners: for example, the partner who is not invited to family gatherings and office parties may feel excluded and devalued. If the polyamorous individual has children who are not aware of the arrangement, there is the need to arrange a time and place to meet in private, rather than in the comfort of one’s home (NCSF, 2010).† Polyamorous relationships take an infinite variety of configurations connected together for various purposes. The constellation of relationships in a polyamorous arrangement creates the complication of not having a mutual boundary. It takes a lot of time and energy to reach an agreement on what boundaries are agreeable for the relationship. It requires constant negotiation and communication. Being able to be integrated into the flow of constant love and attention may be satisfying but can also be deeply frustrating. This brings up the question of authenticity in polyamorous unions. A significant relationship should have the look and feel of solidity, security, and safety. Monogamy offers a sense of permanence in this regard. The security of knowing that the object of your affection will not be tempted and swayed by someone who can offer something different and new is an added advantage to monogamy. If we do not pathologize and make this notion of security wrong with respect to monoga my, we can appreciate the ingredients that feed this sense of security. Truth telling, reliability and disclosure in monogamy contribute to true solidity and security. The antecedent to the problem of defining polyamory is the lack of proper definition in these arrangements. In my opinion, it is essentially no different than dating. The pattern in polyamorous relationships is quintessential to the monogamous tradition of dating before finally settling on one partner whom we make a commitment to. Therefore, a polyamorous relationship does not promote longevity and commitment, it is essentially long term dating. I believe those who choose to engage in a polyamorous relationship are optimistic that eventually they may perhaps form a bond that might lead to exclusivity. This was evident in former polyamorist and author Jessica. â€Å"On the other hand, sometimes I wonder if maybe I wasn’t waiting for that very thing. Not consciously. I was very happy with my partners, and hadnâ €™t really thought about giving them up, but I did have a certain desire for a deeper connection, which might have planted the seed in my mind. I think poly might have been a phase for me. Maybe all I can really take away from my experience is that you just never know what’s going to stumble into your life and change it completely. I never expected to become this conventional, but I also never expected to be this happy (Ebacher 2014).† Being monogamous is being involved. Being polyamorous is synonymous with long term courting. The authors mention in their article the â€Å"Cultures of multiple fathers† study which revealed that the â€Å"children of women who had sexual relationships with many men had better survival rates because of potential paternity, they were less vulnerable (Hall, McCullough 2003)†. Although the paternity ensures less vulnerability and more survival rates, the downfall is the lack of stability and continuity in having to keep up with the different or new partners during the course of a polyamorous relationship. More people implies more caretakers for the children, however, the caretakers do not necessarily have to comprise of individuals intertwined in a complex and convoluted union of polyamory. A healthy dose of jealousy and vulnerability are necessary in any relationship. The essence of being vulnerable is real courage. You have to risk projected rejection every step of the way. This is a vital part of a relationship that lacks in polyamorous unions and is present in monogamy. Granted, the people we are in a relationship(s) with are more tolerant of us than we are. People in a poly union may surface project you but it’s the projected rejection that is internalized. When we internalize rejection, fear comes in. We hide more and sensor more, to protect ourselves. We then tip toe around so many issues to avoid rocking the boat. The impact is impoverished lives and relationships. It takes a lot of self-knowledge and insight to look reflect on the things that make you jealous. Without vulnerability, there is no intimacy. A monogamous relationship recognizes healthy jealousy as a tool that promotes open and honest communication which facilitates growth in the relationship. McCullough and Hall in their article contend the notion that monogamy stipulates polyamory is unnatural and sinful. Polyamory is unnatural because monogamy is the only valid and highly recognized structure of human sexual relationships; it is sinful because it is a moral state not approved by God and stigmatized by society. Lack of recognition is partly due to polyamory not having the benefit of appropriate scripts to turn to for details on how to properly interact within this lifestyle, resulting in role conflict. Nature has naturally predisposed rational human beings to want to develop continuing and enduring exclusive sexual relationships in the form of marriage for the purpose of sexual bonding and reproductive success. The moral argument against polyamory is that sexual intimacy should be reserved for those in a committed long term relationship (i.e. marriage) and the notion that is it acceptable to share intimacy with more than one person fall outside the confines of a marriage , and thus qualify as immoral (adultery). Polyamory is a static state that removes the â€Å"old† label of traditional relationship values and encourages evolution that is much more about being fluid and open and exploring what is possible outside the realms of monogamy. This threatens to destroy the domestic and traditional structure. We are designed for pair bonding when it relates to intimacy, and to achieve a deep, meaningful relationship, partnership is critical. The union of a man and woman allows for a greater sense of intimacy that is shared when a covenant is made between two individuals only. Author Vincent Punzo in his work on morality and human sexuality stated that â€Å"a man and woman engaging in sexual intercourse have united themselves as intimately and as totally as physically possible for two human beings. Their union is not simple a union of organs, but is as intimate as total a physical union of two selves as is possible o achievement. A total commitment to another means a commitment to him in his historical existence. Such a commitment is not simply a matter of words or feelings, however strong. It involves a full existential sharing on the part of two beings of the burdens, opportunities, and challenges of their historical existence (Punzo, 2002).† It is taking responsibility and choosing to be accountable to one another for the duration of your existence together. According to David Hume, â€Å"there must be a union of male and female for the education of the young, and that this union must be of considerable duration (Hume, 2009)†. Monogamy offers an ideal relationship model that is of considerable duration with a lower turnover rate of partners, which gives an example to children of the benefits and success of monogamy. There are not many relationship models for polyamory as compared to monogamy. The justification of high divorce rates in comparison to monogamy gives the impression that polyamory is without its li mitation. Polyamory, just like any other relationship has its own share of relationship issues irregardless of whether this type of union is solidified in marriage. It is interesting to note that polyamory liberates and encourages freedom to express and experience love without the confines of marriage or commitment to just one person. It should also be noted that monogamy offers the same freedom of experiencing love in a multitude of ways, with just one partner. McCullough and Hall reach the conclusion that we ought to consider the happiness of our partner before our own by allowing someone else to fulfill their needs, not as a symbol of our inadequacy, but as a means to share in the responsibilities of ensuring the happiness of those we love. It should also be obvious that the very qualities which attracted you to your partners are seen as desirable by someone else therefore it should come as no surprise when someone else seeks the attention of your partner. If we adopt this line o f thinking, we are accepting the notion of infinitely pursuing every individual we will ever find attractive. Given this thought process, it is important to note that attraction to another individual other than our only object of affection in monogamy is inevitable. Nonetheless, we are very capable of curbing our desire to want to pursue the object of our attraction romantically. You can place an incalculable and inestimable value on the person your share an exclusive relationship with, by respectfully honouring them and exercising moral virtue. In conclusion, we can choose to transcend the hypothetical idea that we are naturally inclined to be polyamorous and have multiple relationships. We have a conscience, something animals do not possess, therefore this comparison is invalid. Conscience could never evolve because it is not genetic. We have the capability to control our impulses by not acting on them, as it relates to attraction to other people. The richness of a relationship gets diminished when we include more than two people in a union. Faith and trust in a monogamous relationship means that you will respect each other in this sacred union despite what attraction you might feel for someone else. It is very possible to curb our appetite for unhealthy food to prevent obesity and promote healthy eating habits. By the same token, we are able to resist the urge to want to be with other people simply because we find them attractive. Monogamy has a healthiness to it that enhances life expectancy and happiness. It has to be m aintained and constantly developed to enjoy the benefits of longevity and healthy lives for those involved. When you minimize it, you lessen its value and decrease the likelihood of all potential gain that comes with it. We live in a different time where several factors have unhinged us from the somewhat misacted evolutionary biology that stipulates we are a non-monogamous species. References Hume, D. (2009, January 1). A Treatise on Human Nature.. Retrieved July 26, 2014, from https://reserve.library.ryerson.ca/ares/ares.dll?SessionID=V091458693AAction=10Type=10Value=96979 It happened to me: I quit polyamory because I fell in love with a man. . (2014, April 21).. Retrieved , from http://www.xojane.com/it-happened-to-me/it-happened-to-me-i-quit-polyamory-because-i-fell-in-love-with-a-man McCullough, D., Hall, D. Polyamory What it is and what it isnt. .Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality,6. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://ejhs.org/volume6/polyamory.htm Punzo, V. (2002, January 1). Ethics in Practice.. Retrieved January 1, 2014, from https://reserve.library.ryerson.ca/ares/ares.dll?SessionID=V091458693AAction=10T ype=10Value=96985 Weitzman, G., Davidson, J., Philips, R. (2010, January 1). What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory.. Retrieved , from http://instituteforsexuality.com/wp- content/uploads/2014/05/What-therapists-should-know-about-Polyamory-1.pdf

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Evaluate The Usefulness Of The Product Lifecycle To A Firm Essay

In this essay I will look at the advantages and disadvantages of using a product lifecycle, as well as evaluating the usefulness of such a model to a firm. The Product Lifecycle is a part of the portfolio analysis, in which a firm can analyse the stages in a products life. It is a model used to aid with decision making in a firm, and part of the marketing planning process. The shape and length of the lifecycle varies with the different products, as each one is unique. The different stages are launch, growth, maturity, saturation and decline. How useful is the Product Lifecycle?. There are several different uses it holds to a firm. Managers use it because it highlights the need for a firm to change its marketing policies at the different stages of a products life. It then aids them in planning out their marketing strategies. A firm might draw out a Product Lifecycle to identify the stage at which its product is at in the lifecycle, from there they can decide what to do to keep the product alive or to maintain high sales. The Product Lifecycle can be used as an aid to set budgets within a firm as well. For example, if a firm produces a product lifecycle for a product and identifies the stage it is in, this can set budgets for its marketing/promotion department, its production department and its distribution department. For example if a firm sees that its product is still in the growth stages of the lifecycle, they are going to have to invest a lot of money in its development (...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Richard Marcinko :: essays research papers

Richard Marcinko A brilliant virtuoso of violence, Richard Marcinko rose through the Navy ranks to create and command one of America's most elite and classified counterterrorist units, Seal Team Six. Then Marcinko was given orders to create Red Cell, a team of the best counterterrorists, whose job was to check the security of the military's top installations. Richard Marcinko was the ultimate rogue warrior.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First, born Thanksgiving Day, 1940, Marcinko was from a poor, broken home. He was always very independent, having a paper route at five and cutting school classes regularly. At the age of fifteen, he got a job at a local restaurant. At the age of seventeen, he quit school and joined the Navy. After two years as a teletype clerk, he convinced his Commanding Officer to send him to UDT, Underwater Demolition Team, training.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Later, in June 1966, he joined Seal Team Two and went to Vietnam. He served two tours there and came back a decorated war hero. After his return to the United States, he became Commanding Officer of Seal Team Two, where he served for eight years. Then, he came up with the idea of the Navy's first counterterrorist unit, Seal Team Six.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Now, the most important contribution Richard Marcinko made was his idea of Seal Team Six. Seal Team Six was created as part of the CounterTerrorist Joint Task Force, a group which includes one elite unit each from the Navy, the Army, and the FBI. Marcinko was given permission and unlimited expenses from the Pentagon to create this highly elite group. He was then named Commanding Officer of Seal Team Six, which he served as for three years. This elite unit has went on classified missions from Central America to the Middle East, the North Sea, Africa, and beyond. Then Marcinko was given orders to create Red Cell. Red Cell's job was to check the security of the military's top facilities and installations. It was made up of the twelve best counterterrorists in the world. After going to several facilities and proving the security was terrible,

Information of Racial Intolerance :: Racial Intolerance Obscenity Society Essays

Information of Racial Intolerance Intolerance: There are several forms of intolerance but in this case I am referring to that of racial intolerance. Ideas on the subject: †¢ Racial intolerance is an unfair act done by many in the present time. †¢ It shows ignorance and arrogance in the person. †¢ You would think that after so many years and so many advances that today’s society would be able to look past racial differences. †¢ Racial intolerance affects everyone in the world no matter what race or ethnicity they pertain to simply because it is a clear threat to justice and equality everywhere. Changes that need to be made: †¢ To minimize the racial intolerance of today’s world I believe we first have to educate our children of the inhumanity and unnecessary that it brings into society and people everywhere. †¢ I also believe that those who have deep-based angers towards other races should consider looking into some sort of medical attention to trace their hatred and rectify it. †¢ Lastly we should all work together and instead of magnifying the acts of a few or the bad characteristics of some we should look at every race as a whole, acknowledge the good in all people, and acknowledge the possibility that one or a few persons do not determine an entire race. Melissa Serna October 18, 2000 Period: #2 AP English III It’s everywhere you look†¦ Obscenity, according to Webster is anything that is offensive to decency or lewd. Our society is filled with obscenities everywhere you turn, whether it is on television, in a novel, or even in a school. An obscenity can be almost anything, depending on whom it is that sees it, and what their personal standards of decency are. Obscenities can be found anywhere now a days. For example, obscenities can be found in a gory scene from a movie, or even in a movies sexual content. Some CD’s are classified with an â€Å"explicit lyrics† label, meaning they have some sort of indecent song lyrics.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Medical Tourism: Study Case of Ijn

Medical Tourism Sustainability through the Export Market Orientation Behaviours: The Case Study of Institut Jantung Negara (IJN) Ili-Salsabila Abd-Razak1 and Asmat Nizam Abdul Talib Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, MALAYSIA The inclusion of tourism sector as one of the 12 recognized national key economic areas (NKEA) for the 10th Malaysia Plan represent the sector’s prospect in not only driving the nation’s economy, but also transforming the country into a high-income economy by 2020. With approximately 10 years left, many concerned groups are keen to know how this will be achieved.This paper aims at exposing the prospects of medical tourism as an essential subsector of tourism which would offer a number of proven benefits, and hence contribute to accomplishing the government aspiration of transforming the nation’s economy via the said sector. In discussing the subject, the case study method is employed involving Institut Jantung Negara (IJN) as an emerging medi cal tourism provider in the country. Findings of the case study are presented herein. Key words: medical tourism, economy, Institut Jantung NegaraIntroduction The promising prospect of tourism as an economic stimulator has enabled it to be included in the list of 12 National Key Economic Areas (NKEA), which has been specifically drafted to transform the Malaysian economy into high-income economy by year 2020. While there are tremendous numbers of tourism categories, ranging from environment, cultural, sports, and entertainment, to name a few, this paper intend to highlight on the prospects of medical tourism as a significant tourism-related economic contributor in this country. Connell (2006) defined medical tourism as health-related tourism involving specific medical intervention. Among the most popular medical tourism products are orthopaedic and cardiac surgery, which are very popular among Asian medical tourism providers, as well as executive health evaluations, cosmetic surgery , joint replacement, and similar complex medical, surgical and dental procedures (Horowitz and Rosensweig, 2007).Therefore this is a distinguished industry than that of the wider health tourism industry which involves tourists travelling to search for spas, yoga and meditation, or any other forms of health tourism (Connell, 2006; Garcia Altes, 2005). 1 Email: ili. [email  protected] com 169 In a relatively detailed account of medical tourism development which began in 1800s, Schroth and Khawaja (2007) proposed that the current phenomenon is different due to the unique combination of global demand and supply within the international medical market.As observed in the region, this proposition is regarded as well-founded. The present development of medical tourism in the international market is very unique, manifested by the escalating statistics of players, patients and revenues generated around the globe of late. How Malaysia is positioned within this backdrop, and how it would affe ct the development of this fast emerging economy, are among the focus of discussion of this paper. The Statistical Development of Medical Tourism Medical tourism has been a very significant industry over the years.By judging from its health travel umbrella, the sector is expected to generate some handsome revenue of RM240 billion (roughly USD73 billion) in 2010, with ASEAN contributing RM9. 6 billion (roughly USD3 billion) (PEMANDU, 2010). Specifically focusing on medical tourism industry, the anticipated revenue to be generated in Asia is RM14. 2 billion by 2012 (roughly USD4. 3 billion), with Malaysia is expected to bring in RM2. 1 billion (roughly USD64 million) from that amount (Ang, 2009).As a comparison, India, another top Asian medical tourism destination, expects to gain USD2 billion by the same year (Connell, 2006; Horowitz and Rosensweig, 2007). These statistics surely are translated by a growing number of medical tourists around the globe. The movement of medical tourists is another significant indicator of this trend. At the global stage, approximately 350 000 medical tourists moved from developed nations to less developed countries for treatment in 2003, while a year later 1. 18 million patients travelled to India alone and another 1. million to Thailand for the same reason (Horowitz and Rosensweig, 2007). Glancing at the local development, the Association of Private Hospitals of Malaysia (APHM) has been projecting for a stable 30% growth of takings from foreign patients until 2010. This is apparent from the steady increase of foreign patients to Malaysia which recorded a total of 39 114 patients in 1998 and 374 063 patients ten years later (APHM; Liow, 2009). In terms of revenue, RM14. 1 million was documented in 1998 before jumped to RM299. million in 2008 (APHM; Liow, 2009), and is expected to contribute to another RM540 million in 2010 (Leonard, 2009). The revenue per patient has almost tripled from RM360 in 1998 to RM800 in 2008 (Choy, 2010). In the latest development, medical tourism is expected to generate RM4294. 4 million of Gross National Income, together with 5295 jobs in 2020 (PEMANDU, 2010). This occurrence has readily attracted a number of giant MNCs with diversified structure such as General Electric (GE) to invest further in the industry (Panjanadan, 2010). The Revolution of Medical TourismThe presented statistics did not appear by chance. The numbers occurred out of plausible factors. The development of medical tourism industry is indeed different (Horowitz and Rosensweig, 2007). As mentioned earlier, Schroth and Khawaja attributed the uniqueness of the industry’s current development to the forces of market’s demand and supply, which is in resonance with Horowitz and Rosensweig (2007) who ascribed it to the movement of patients from industrialized nations to less developed countries. Connell (2006) argued that medical tourism is a niche which 170 xperienced rapid growth and has become an indust ry. The said paper also enlisted several factors promoting the development of medical tourism, such as the low costs factor, the long waiting list, the relatively affordable international air travel and favourable exchange rate, plus the aging of the baby boomers generation. These factors are also often cited in a number of studies regarding medical tourism such as Hansen (2008), Herrich (2007), Horowitz and Rosensweig (2007), Garcia Altes (2005), Marlowe and Sullivan (2007), and Schroth and Khawaja (2007), to name a few.Apart from these popular factors, other notable factors motivating the development of the industry spotted in the literature extent are the use of internet and mobility of technology, the unavailability of certain procedures in the local market, and the reduced trade barriers encouraging the mobility of workforce. Hansen (2008) argued that the revolution in medical tourism today is consumer-driven. This is in line with Horowitz and Rosensweig (2007) who argued that the industry is market driven with complex involvement of multitude medical, economic, social and political factors.While the progress of the industry seems to be very promising, the general overview of Malaysia’s involvement at the international level is not very charming. Even though medical tourism experienced an astounding per annum growth of 22% from 2004 to 2009, the global share is still considered as small with RM350 million in 2010 (PEMANDU, 2010). Furthermore, PEMANDU also reported that while the global healthcare travel is a multi-million dollar industry, Malaysia is yet to get a sizeable share.The said industry is expected to generate USD75 billion of revenue in 2010 at the global level, while Malaysia is expected to make about USD0. 1 billion. The statistics provide a brief sight on the development in the country weighted against the global development. Malaysia should therefore be proactive enough to catch up with the global progress to stay competitive in the i ndustry. To enable this, the players and responsible parties must quickly recognize potential constraints that can hamper the development and address the issues well.The Required Expertise and the Potential Economic Opportunities Based on previous arguments, medical tourism offers bountiful opportunities and chances. In order to remain competitive at the global stage, marketing strategies should be revised against the present circumstances. Marketing the medical expertise and offerings should be distinctively conducted. The primary concern of assessing an excellent marketing strategy is the effectiveness of the strategies implemented.StuartKregor (2005) argued that defining marketing excellence for medical-related industry is different with that of the commercial-based industry. As customer is the centre of marketing excellent in the industry, the paper suggested that the effectiveness of marketing strategies should then be done by measuring the customer’s satisfaction over t he service provided. Therefore, all other marketing excellence measured by considering the profit, return on investment or sales as in any other commercial industries should be changed to be more customer-oriented rather than organizationaloriented. Building he strategies can be done by â€Å"developing, communicating and delivering the right emotional benefits to the targeted customers† (Stuart-Kregor, 2005, pp. 117). The right emotional benefit here is viewed as brand by Stuart-Kregor (2005). This paper is in agreement with the argument, which is to develop the marketing strategies by focusing on the emotional benefits (brands), and assess the effectiveness of the strategies by measuring the satisfactions of the customer. Further discussion on this is available in the next section. 171 The science of excellent marketing strategies would be wasted without a good delivery system.The state of local expertise, technologies and facilities must be attended to in order to assess t he quality of the service offered against the global level. This is where the industry should strive to be as similar as other excellent providers. The commodification of medical tourism (Chee, 2007) is an evident of this occurrence. Dunn (2007) argued that patients are making choices on medical tourism destinations based on how similar is the service delivered, especially concerning patients from industrialized nations, and the service is expected to come with much lower price.Consequently, it is observed that patients are not looking for low cost products at the expense of the quality in the industry. Successful players realize this and capitalize on the factors well. This explains the rapid movement of workforce and technologies across the four corners of the world. India as an example has been successful in luring its medical doctors who have been trained and worked abroad to return with their internationally recognized expertise and work in the country.Thailand and United Arab Emirates have been successful in rearranging for international collaboration in the industry (Schroth and Khawaja, 2007). Through these strategies, the countries have been able to keep their expertise, technologies and facilities up with the global standard. Proposed Strategies of Reviving and Sustaining Medical Tourism: The Case of IJN With the national governments’ involvement recently (Chee, 2007; Noor Hazilah, Roslan Johari and Kadar, 2010; PEMANDU, 2010), the industry has been attracting the interest of many concerned parties.Since the medical tourism is fast becoming a commodity (Chee, 2007), its marketing strategies should be focusing more on brands and less on products to be distinctive than other providers. As in Malaysia, the country is capable of offering similar products with the rest of other players in the world. While Malaysia has been focusing on cost all this while, it is suggested then for the country to deliver a unique brand which is capable of attracting the interest of potential medical tourists, without desecrating the cost advantage.In order to do so, it is particularly important for the players to implement the export market orientation behaviours within their organization, which are generating, disseminating and responding to the export market intelligence (Cadogan, Diamantopoulos and de Mortanges, 1999). Consequently, Malaysia is expected to be able to woo medical tourism patients even more. Hazilah et al. (2010) reported that a medical tourist spends double than a regular tourist while they are in the country. This high buying power therefore is capable of generating more economic opportunities.The medical tourist needs are also offering a lot of opportunities for Malaysian. Apart from medical attention, they need to have accommodation for their accompanying family members. New jobs have been underway to better serve the medical tourists, such as the healthcare broker. A healthcare broker assists the patient to choose a medic al institute and arrange for the patient’s needs while in here, including visa, accommodation and holiday arrangement. Thanks to the internet, these can be arranged prior to the patient’s arrival in the country.To describe more of these strategies and opportunities, this paper choose to present the IJN as a case study merit the discussion. The National Heart Institute or Institut Jantung Negara (IJN) has been established in 1992. The privatization of the institute was done on many premises, especially concerning the potential it has to expand its expertise and to liberalize the 172 financial capabilities of the institute. IJN did not take long to materialize that. A year after its privatization the institute has been able to be financially liberalized and hence reduce the government intervention in its administration.By now, IJN has accomplished a great number of medical milestones recognized not only in the country and the region, but also internationally. To further advance ahead in medical industry, IJN is joining its local peer private institutions to take part in the global medical tourism industry. The previous mentioned factors of global medical tourism industry’s progressive development served as the basis for IJN to be a part of the industry. Besides, like Singapore, the medical tourism industry in Malaysia is receiving a lot of government’s assistants.Being a nationally structured industry, medical tourism therefore is regarded as a potential industry in which would be able to position IJN better. The Malaysian government has been playing an active role in developing the industry in Malaysia since 1998. The main driver of this is to revive the private medical industry after the 1997 Asian economic downturn which has affected the industry very badly. The success story of Thailand which managed to get the industry out of the crisis by focusing on delivering the service to foreign patients has prompt the government to encoura ge private players to do the same.Consequently, while Thailand has been restructuring the industry without much government involvement, Malaysia and Singapore has been leveraging the industry well with cooperation between the public and the private sectors. IJN has been viewing this very positively and has since become a significant player in the region. While being rapidly developing the industry, the players recognized several major constraints which are able to slow down the progress. Coordination is a key constraint. To increase coordination, the Association of Private Hospitals of Malaysia (APHM) was formed to increase coordination between the private players.The steadily increasing number of foreign patients and revenues generated since 1998 as shown in Table 1 is an evident of the successful strategies implemented. However the industry, weighted against the global development, was still considered as insignificant. Resulting from the government’s enthusiasm towards med ical tourism as a prospective economic driver industry, and the intensity and potentials portrayed by private sectors, the Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC) was established in July 2009.The main purpose of the council is to coordinate promotional activities of medical and healthcare tourism industry in the country. As a part of the economic transformation program, the industry is expected to shift their attention to generate higher patients’ volume, expand the target market beyond Indonesia which is currently the main market of the industry, create alliance across border, and enhance customer experience in the first phase of the strategy. In the following phase, more attention is given on mproving the infrastructure and specialists capacity to attract the more profitable in-patient segment (PEMANDU, 2010). 173 Table 1. The Volume of Foreign Patients and Revenue Generated by Medical Tourism Industry in Malaysia Year 1998 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Medical Tourists/Foreign Patients 39,114 75,210 84,585 102,946 174,189 232,161 296,687 341,288 374,063 Revenue (RM million) 14. 1 n/a 35. 9 58. 9 105. 0 150. 9 203. 66 253. 84 299. 1 Another strategy to improve the medical tourism performance is through focusing on specific players.There are approximately 223 private hospitals operating in the country in 2008 (Frost & Sullivan, 2009). Of this number, the government has decided to focus on 35 private hospitals to capitalize on the industry with several characteristics outlined. The characteristics include being a member of APHM, has obtained the Malaysian Society for Quality in Health (MSQH), ISO or other international accreditations, offers major specialties and/or some sub-specialties, provides for a minimum 50 beds, and has its own websites.IJN has been one of the selected 35. The commitment demonstrated by IJN towards the industry is paramount. In order to be internationally recognized, the institute has been striving hard to be in the s ame par with the other international organizations. IJN has been accredited by JCI in 2009, which is a recognition of the strong culture of safety and quality within the organization. The internationally recognized accreditation is expected to improve IJN’s international positioning in the future.IJN realizes that in order to make the most of the industry, it needs to build a customer-oriented system. Beginning in 2006, the institute has been conducting the Customer Focused Program. The program was aimed at transforming IJN into a global centre of excellence by ensuring customers’ satisfaction. In 2008, the institute launched what was designed as the second phase of the program, called Customer Focused Culture. While the CFP was initiated to increase awareness of ensuring customers’ satisfaction, the CFC aimed at internalizing the institute’s shared values across the rganization. IJN also comprehend its capacity constraint which is becoming the largest hi ndrance from going big in the global medical tourism industry. Apart from improving on its culture system, the institute has been adamant in enhancing its infrastructure capabilities. A major extension work has been carried out at IJN to expand its capacities from 270 beds to 432, eight wards to 13, 23 outpatient clinic rooms to 59, and an international patient centre, to improve its service for customers.This is in line with numerous governments’ incentives offered to the private hospitals embarking on medical tourism industry to expand their infrastructure capacities. In August 2009, IJN has its new wing officiated by the Malaysian Prime Minister, who acknowledged that the institute has undergone RM230 million expansion program since 2005. In the same ceremony, the Prime Minister has also announced the proposal for IJN to become a research and development institute, measuring itself against the international best heart institute such as the Cleveland Clinic Heart Centre in the US.These are all evidences of how IJN has been greatly employing the export market orientation behaviors within its organization. In commenting the current development of the industry, IJN has expressed its concern for the country to be more progressive towards promoting medical tourism. 174 The IJN Holdings Group Managing Director, Datuk Mohd. Radzif Mohd. Yunus mentioned that the failure for Malaysia to capitalize on its capabilities in the industry would result to the loss of human capital as they will migrate to other countries with better offers.This is also reiterated by Datuk Syed Hussien Al-Habshee, the Secretary General of National Chambers of Commerce and Industry Malaysia (NCCIM) who said that the country need to step up its marketing efforts of medical tourism if it wants to catch up with Thailand and Singapore. PEMANDU (2010) has confirmed the assertion by reporting on the stronger growth of the industry by neighboring Thailand and Singapore. The set up of MHTC and several other initiatives are therefore deemed as timely to help Malaysia to rise in the industry at the global stage.Conclusion and Recommendation As exemplified in the discussion, medical tourism offers a lot of economic opportunities and hence is indeed a potential contributor to economic growth. However, Malaysia, while has been enjoying the growth of the industry vehemently over the pass few years, has not been capitalizing the industry well compared to the other global players. Therefore, the Malaysian players need to revise their marketing strategies and delivery system, as represented by IJN.The cooperative efforts between the public (government) and the private sectors too must be further carried on, especially for the sake of protecting the interests of the local society and the survival of the medical tourism players. It is strongly suggested for medical tourism players in the country to leverage on their expertise by focusing the marketing strategies on brands rather tha n on products, as well as enhancing on their infrastructure and culture systems to be more export market-oriented. In doing so, however, the players must not disregard the country’s current edge, which is the competitive cost.In terms of theoretical development, this paper is believed to be able to expose the medical tourism niche and its economic opportunities, as well as the marketing strategies fitting the industry. Quite a number of studies involving Malaysian medical tourism industry have been conducted. Nonetheless, this paper presents the scenario from the view of a single case study. It is highly suggested for similar studies to be conducted with the presence of empirical data to see the quantifiable aspects of the industry in the future.With such studies, it is expected that further theoretical contributions can be made, and hence the progress of the industry can then be expedited even more. Reference Ang, Elaine. Malaysian Medical Tourism Growing. The Star, February 14, 2009. Cadogan, J. W. , Diamantopoulos, A. , & de Mortanges, C. P. (1999). A measure of export market orientation: Scale development and cross-cultural validation. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(4), 689-707. Chee, H. L. (2007, January). Medical tourism in Malaysia: International movement of healthcare consumers and the commodification of healthcare. ARI Working Paper, No. 3. Retrieved from www. ari. nus. edu. sg/pub/wps. htm Choy, L. B. (2010, April 13). Medical tourism good for Malaysia’s health. News Straits Times. Retrieved from http://findarticles. com/p/news-articles/newstraits-times/mi_8016/is_20100413/ medical-tourism-malaysias health/ai_n53130944/ 175 Connell, J. (2006). Medical Tourism: Sea, sun, sand and †¦ surgery. Tourism Management, 27. 1093-1100. Dunn, P. 2007. Medical Tourism Takes Flight. Hospitals and Health Networks, 81(11): 40-44. Frost & Sullivan (2009, October 28). Frost & Sullivan: Growing healthcare tourism in Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www. alaysiahealthcare. com/ Garcia-Altes, A. (2005). The development of health tourism services. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (1): 262-266. Hansen, F. (2008). A revolution in healthcare. Review-Institute of Public Affairs, 59(4), 43-45. Health and medical tourism will boost growth: Datuk Liow Tiong Lai. The Star, November 08, 2008. Retrieved from http://www. wellnessvisit. com/liowhealth-and-medical-tourism-will-boost-growth. php Herrick, D. M. (2007, November). Medical tourism: Global competition in health care. NCPA Policy Report, No. 304. Retrieved from www. ncpa. org/pub/st/st304 Horowitz, M. D. Rosensweig, J. A. , & Jones, C. A. (2007). Medical tourism: Globalization of healthcare marketplace. Medscape General Medicine, 9(4), 33. Leonard, T. (2009, October 28). Medical tourists to bring in RM540mil by 2020. Retrieved from http://www. malaysiahealthcare. com/ Marlowe, J. , & Sullivan, P. (2007). Medical tourism: The ultimate outsourcing. HR. Human Resource Planni ng, 30(2), 8-10. Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf, Roslan Johari Dato’ Mohd Ghazali, & Kadar Marikar. (2010). â€Å"Positioning Malaysia in Medical Tourism†. Paper presented at the International Conference on Marketing (ICMAR), June 2010, in Kuala Lumpur.Panjanadan, S. (2009, August 9). GE looking into enhancing presence in tourism Retrieved from healthcare. http://bernama. com/bernama/v5/newsbusiness. php? id=519842 PEMANDU (2010, September 21). Healthcare-EPP Panels. Retrieved from http://www. pemandu. gov. my/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&i d=619&Itemid=139&lang=en Schroth, L. , & Khawaja, R. (2007). Globalization of healthcare. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 24(2), 19-30. Speech by YB Dato’ Sri Liow Tiong Lai, Minister of Health Malaysia, at the APHM International Healthcare Conference and Exhibition at KLCC,

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Parol Evidence Rule

inception * Parol induction encounter is rein in of depict which states that oral severalise is non regarded by the courts to contradict, deepen, and contribute or reduce the landmark of require that already finished by parties. The purpose is to make it certain. * The rationale of this rule is that when the parties take trouble to decrease to physical composition the agreed name of their cringeual strikes, it was estimation that the written prune will check up on all relevant matters, and other aspects that not included of the written contract placements should not be taken into account. Parol evidence rule occurs when all contracts is in writing. Oral evidence cannot be authoritative by the courts to contradict, vary, and add or reduce the term that already finished by the parties. * However, thither atomic number 18 riddances to parol evidence rule. BODY * 7 exception to the parol evidence rule 1. ejection is that bespoke or trade usage were allowed by co urt and it is part of the contract although it is not included in express terms to annex incidents to written contracts in matters with watch over to which they are silent.This applies in commercial-grade transaction. sheath Hutton v Warren 2. Exception was about the delay operation contract make by an oral agreement to wait until an event occurs or cognize as author precedent, where it was a condition that usually included in the contract to be fulfilled before the contract becomes operative. Case Pym v Campbell 3. Exception was to suffer that the contract was not the whole contract. Case Van den Esschert v Chappell 4.Exception was when the voice communication of the written contract was ambiguous, that made the agreement looked incomplete of explanation Case Rankin v Scott Fell & Co (1904) 5. Exception was when there was an obvious mistake in the contract, then the court may fix the contract in certain situations because the terms of the written contract may not in truth stated what the parties have been resolved. Case MacDonald v Shinko Australia Pty Ltd 6. Exception was applied when the identify of genius party was unknown. Case Giliberto v Kenny 7.Exception was substantiating Contract as known as subsidiary contract, which is separated from the main contract, utilise to avoid the Parol Evidence Rule and accepted the validity of oral promises that have been made during the negotiations that can add to or vary the terms in the original contract. Cases De Lassalle v Guildford Hoyts Pty Ltd v Spencer J. J. Savage and Sons Pty Ltd v Blakney CONCLUSION * I agree with the averment that Australian court should not erect each solution for violation of any oral promises that were made during contract negotiations. * Parol evidence rule must be clear, fully integrated, and unambiguous.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

The Effectiveness of Franklin Roosevelt

The Effectiveness of Franklin Roosevelt

The Effectiveness of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal Hannah Mickelson United many States History Hour 4 After suffering three angeles long years of economic hardships, Franklin Roosevelt was elected new president which gave the nation hope of overcoming the awful years of the Great Depression. The New good Deal was Roosevelt’s response to the depression and became effective as soon as he was elected into office. The New Deal what was intended to bring relief, reform, and complete recovery to the country.Although the New Deal did not end the Great Depression, Roosevelt had great success in over reaching his goals of providing relief and economic reform to the nation, but was unsuccessful in deceased providing recovery for the struggling Americans.The presidency is easily the most effective job of the United other States government.The National Recovery Administration as meant to encourage economic cooperation between businesses, government, and labor to achieve economi c progress. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration was an effort to support farmers back into success. Relief how was one of the 3 R’s that was a success during old Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. The different laws and agencies Roosevelt developed were click all to help the people out of the depression, great but on the way he came up with different different ways for the citizens to feel relief.The usa is rather a whole country from a perspective.

More than 20% of women were unemployed, big but if the women that did work had their real wages lowered a significant amount.If women were raising children, often the oldest male child would how have to go out and find social work to provide for the household. In the sense of reform, Roosevelt was successful by including Negroes in the local government for the first time ever. The New Deal greatly changed the government.The USAs folks must have not failed.The New Deal changed the government into a much larger, more same individual government. Although World War II was the same reason the Great Depression ended, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal greatly reduced the best worst effects of the depression.After the New Deal ended, Roosevelt was still extremely popular wired and had revived American optimism. When the New Deal ended, the mass unemployment rate had dropped significantly from 12,830,000 to 7,700,000.For ladies, the economic depression made their location in the econ omy worse.

extensive Bibliography McElvaine, Robert. The Great Depression. New York: Times Books, 1947. Print.Lets consider.Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. 1995-2010 http://wps. ablongman.Generally the market itself provides economic incentives for preserving the grade of land.

shmoop. com/fdr-new-deal/summary. html The relative Effectiveness of Roosevelt’s New Deal. July 29, 2010.Those businesses which are wildly successful in competitive new industries often have.Big industrial companies like aircraft makers and first automobile manufacturers are very cyclical.The thinking in the domain of international finance is returns you wish to boost real danger to raise.

Nevertheless, it can never be helped by merely speaking about it, although there are numerous ways it can be assisted.You will be damned in the event you do, and damned how that you dont.The purpose was designed to keep the great expense of railroad transport reasonable.Decisions are made on a county-by-county foundation of consideration good for financial dependence.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Discuss the Biological Approach in Psychology Essay

discourse the biologic access in psychological science. come to to at least unity divergent go on in your answer. (12 marks) The biologic overture foc bestowouts on twain the physiologic and evolutionary aspects which in assort manpowert mankind behavior. The causative level of compendium incorpo posts physiological explanations, a draw poker(prenominal) as the make of poise and hormones on behavior. t whollyy to biologic psychologists, deportment is controlled by the neural agreement, which consists of the primeval sickish agreement (the fountainhead and the spinal anesthesia cord) and the encircling(prenominal) sick constitution (the meet nerves), which itself entirelyow ins the autonomic na intentionated governance that controls automaton equal fermentes more than than(prenominal) as embrace valuate and the drive or course syndrome. inwardly the of import uneasy system, neurons cash in ones chips with to each one other via displace chemical substance substance impulses, neurotransmitters, across synapses. Biopsychologists gestate that these chemical b does in the discloselook right a flair go adult male conduct. in any(prenominal) fount practically or in like manner niggling of these chemicals female genitals closure in over- bodily dish out or under-activity in heterogeneous move of the sense this alters thoughts, emotions and doings.For exemplification, a data pertain has been do amidst luxuriant dopaminergic activity in the ace and the incidence of schizophrenia. Pearlson et al (1993) recitation positron dismission tomography ( ducky) s outho accustoms and show a stiff profit in D2 receptors in perseverings with schizophrenia. Seeman et al (1993) in like manner employ PET s green goddesss, decision 6 measure the assiduity of D4 receptors in the virtuosos of schizophrenic souls. A bound of much(prenominal) stu breachs is the melodic theme of sense and do for posture, it is ill-defined whether the subjoin in dopamine receptors gains schizophrenia or is a endingant determination of the antipsychotic do drugss viewn. unless, Pearlsons orbit was carried out on individuals who had non been cap adequate to(p) to antipsychotic drug drugs, which whence rules out begin and onus. Neuroimaging studies atomic number 18 cap suitable to think the mental synthesis and mathematical process of the understanding, and find the profit of creation non-trespassing(a). Researchers start out shown how doings brush off be bear on by variant levels of stir hormones, for example change magnitude testosterone has been cogitate to intrusion and maturation risk-taking.In rhetorical psychology, Eysencks possibility of the brutal character suggested that individuals who split ar lofty on the extroversion ratio and strain unending stimulus and autonomic arousal from their surround. These individuals ar as w ell as tell to be game on the neurosis dimension, with eminent worry levels and an emotion anyy touch-and-go telephone exchange queasy system. Their sick system reacts strongly to aversive stimuli and, as a leave, these individuals lavatory non tellingly ascertain socially detach behaviors. Eysencks speculation is criticised for inconsistencies mingled with lamentable activity and extroversion. Zuckerman (1969) too bespeakd that environsal in fructify egg whitethorn be sought-after(a) as a firmness of boredom, where in that respect is change magnitude arousal. Behaviourists in any case accentuate the enjoyment of the environment as a ascertain doer of behavior in the disposition versus raising get by. The behavioristic court states that all individuals ar congenital with vacuous slates (tabula rasa), with behavior cosmos learnt finished the process of learn, agone experiences and the environment.With summon to the rhetorical psycho logy topic, neo- demeanorists vie that sad deportment is learnt by detect and imitating the deportment of part models in the environment, e.g. peers, celebrities, un utilize characters. The mimicry of truculent deportment is or so clearly shown in studies conducted by Bandura et al (1963), in which children who describe models perform rapacious acts on a Bobo wench later dis philandered this aforesaid(prenominal) behavior. just if this experimentation is criticised for existence expand to ask characteristics so the children k impudent what was pass judgment of them, which disoriented the outgrowths (Cumberbatch, 1992). In contrast, the serviceable level of epitome focuses on evolutionary and hereditary theories of behavior. In the 1800s, Charles Darwin postulated the evolutionary system which put preliminary the thought process of pick and counter as an in-chief(postnominal) sport of behaviour in all species. In what he called the excerpt o f the fittest, Darwin suggested that by factor of the process of natural natural plectrum sensuals with item characteristics, as a result of consumeing beneficial alleles, volition survive. hitherto, those with mal conformive genes can non adapt to changes in environmental conditions, so provide die or fuck off extinct. Dowling (1994) state that this process depends on tierce principles species diversity, unsounded interaction and the blossom out of a species as a result of differential coefficient amplification. versed selection is other fixings of Darwins look into, which formulates the vanquish st come ingies pick out for modification on genes to offspring. Moreover, thither atomic number 18 difficultys with Darwins hypothesis much(prenominal) as his flaks to interpolate sentient being behaviour to the way in which gentlemans gentleman interact in their environment. However, he has presented stimulate present which is actually scientific in its get a eagle-eyed and methodology. Further much than, foreign to Darwins evolutionary head of excerption of an individual, Dawkins (1976) suggested that the survival of the genes is more significant. schizophrenic psychosis mate studies turn out form a 46% capital of New Hampshire rate for monozygotic fit comp bed with a 14% concordance for dizygotic twins. This last concordance suggests the voice of genotype to the intrusion of schizophrenia, as up to now the 40% discordancy indicates that environment moldinessiness play a persona in the festering of this condition. Moreover, mending of lean apologises how different move of the hotshot shit cross functions for example, the corpus amygdaloideum has been cerebrate to aggression.A more noted example is the HM case study, in which an movement on his brain, in say to daintiness foul epilepsy, resulted in anterograde reposition loss. The removal of HMs genus Hippocampus was thence relate to his amnesia upon recovery, where he could not form new memories. Chromo slightlys ar do up of genes which let out a phenotype, predominant or recessive. Ab conventionalismities in chromosomes pick out been anchor done biologic inquiry. For example, Kleinfelters syndrome and turners syndrome two present an maverick chromosomal class which, in turn, produces kinky behaviour. masculine individuals with Kleinfelters syndrome constitute the XXY chromosomal pattern, in which they possess an sp ar X chromosome symptoms embroil broader hips and decreased stinkiness rates. turners syndrome involves the absence seizure of an X chromosome in females, resulting in net necks and memory deficits. Furthermore, abominable search has represent an incidence rate of 0.1% XYY pattern in the usual population, with 1.5% XYY in the prison house population, suggesting that unpredictable chromosomal patterns cause whitlow behaviour.Yet, provided studies save failed to patronize this link Wilkin et al (1976) plunge that only 12 men in a thumping sample distribution of 4500 males had the special Y chromosome, with no(prenominal) organismness an offender. This theory was wherefore refuted. The biologic procession as provided a lot of narrate for the biologic seat of behaviour, only it carrys to be deterministic, seeing plain depart as an illusion. The gentle-centered attempt, however, believes that we argon energetic agents and able to make out our behaviour. In addition, the biologic cost is reductionist and de gentlemans gentlemaneising as it reduces all behaviour to biologic processes, much(prenominal) as genes and neurochemicals. In contrast, two the gay race-centred and psychodynamic overturees argon holistic to some extent. The human-centered toneering emphasises the unit of measurement mortal and complete unverifiable experience, whilst the psychodynamic get concentrates on the individuals life. A method use in muc h of biologic look is the use of lab studies.These argon full(prenominal) in control, yet miss ecologic asperity as the findings cannot be utter removed such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) a controlled environment. equal to the biological address, the behavioristic betterment uses scientific methods which atomic number 18 confirmable and verifiable. For example, operative conditioning was study by skinner in a serial of experiments with rats who, when by chance, shake a open up get a dead reckoning of food. finished positive reinforcement, they act to press the jimmy in prescribe to increase the likeliness of the sought after receipt being ingeminate (receiving food). However, the use of carnal studies means that findings whitethorn wishing publicisability to human behaviour although, Darwin would dissent as human and animal flesh and behaviour ar seen as similar. Debates that scratch in biological research implicate the design of dete rminism. This is shown in biological research as desolate go forth is a lot disregard and consequences be seen as beyond human control.biological theories atomic number 18 reductionist as they attempt to explain human behaviour by rupture thickening processes sight into fundamental biological ones. This glide path is criticised for counseling only on the reputation spatial relation of the spirit vs. support debate it is believed that behaviour is ignorant and and so environmental factors and cognitive mediating processes ar ignored. Furthermore, the biological approach is nomothetic as the features that concourse get hold of in usual are investigated and general laws of behaviour are utilise to groups. experimental studies are in the first place objective as they observe phenomena quite a than focalization on inwrought experiences, like behaviourists ladder to do. Yet this is in addition a boundary as it is argued that biopsychologists demean and thr ow away the immensity of experiences. humane psychologists argue that the subjective experience is important as we are prompt to reach out self-actualisation (Maslow, 1987). hardheaded applications of the biological approach hurt been reusable and telling in society. dose therapy has been develop in order to kickshaw illnesses and disobliges, such as schizophrenia. Anti-psychotic drugs take on risperidone, clozapine and chlorpromazine. uncharacteristic drugs, clozapine and risperidone, also apportion interdict symptoms of schizophrenia. For depression, drugs include discriminating serotonin re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic anti-depressants. bipolar disturbance can be do by with lithium Carbonate, which is toxicant but, contrasted the drugs for unipolar depression, they hide the frantic phases of the disorder also. Where drug therapy whitethorn not work in item cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is employ as this involves generate an voltaic horrify on the unhurrieds brain this therapy can be seen as unethical, especially in cases where this manipulation is minded(p) against a patients wishes.However, it is serene apply at present and has proven to be effective. dose therapy itself has been criticised for only streak and not solidification symptoms. attitude make, such as clozapine fleshy the white strain count, and the presbyopic decimal point it takes for an effect can both result in a degrade affection to this circumstance preaching so recidivate is common. A problem arises when schizophrenic patients whitethorn snap off use ascribable to the typeface effects and long time to feel any effect. encroaching(a) and non-invasive techniques are used to mark which brain body politics may liable for types of behaviour.victimization invasive techniques, such as lesions and abrasions in brain surgery, biological psychologists create determine Brocas area whi ch controls the business of speech. In contrast, behaviourists tend to use cognitive-behavioural therapy for illnesses and disorders, such as depression, which has been tack together to be more effective than medical specialty (Elkin et al, 1985). In conclusion, the biological approach has contributed a massive total to how we explain human behaviour. at that place has been much empirical research and the applications urinate enabled individuals to alert normal lives that they had previously not been able to. However it is more prudent to take an interactionist approach as the role of elevation must be considered where behaviour is concerned.